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Until the beginning of the 19th century, no clear clinical differentiation could be made between typhus and typhoid–two of the major pestilence. Brill-Zinsser disease: Recrudescence of epidemic typhus years after the initial attack. The agent that causes epidemic typhus (Rickettsia prowazekii) remains. Brill-Zinsser disease occurs as a late recrudescence of epidemic typhus. The clinical effect of a newly developed azalide, called azithromycin, against Rickettsia.

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Chloramphenicol and fluoroquinolones have been shown to have zinssed variable degree of efficacy in treatment of infections with another typhus group rickettsiae, R. An Orphanet summary for this disease is currently under development. A low increase in IgM antibody titers was noted, with a maximum titer of 1: Journal List Emerg Infect Dis v.

Brill-Zinsser disease

He had most recently traveled to Morocco in Ann N Y Acad Sci. In the case presented here, we found no stress factor, no immunosuppression, and no medical history of epidemic typhus. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. There have been at least 47 cases documented in humans since Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, unpublished data [ 56 ]. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

The patient was given empirical treatment with oral doxycycline at mg twice daily. Bacterium-related cutaneous conditions Epidemic typhus Dermatology stubs. Brill-Zinsser disease is a recurrent form of epidemic typhus that is unrelated to louse infestation and develops sporadically years after the primary illness.


In addition, the availability of tetracycline-class antibiotics to effectively treat rickettsial infections has reduced the severity and duration of infections [ 14 ]. For centuries, it has been associated with overcrowding, cold weather, and poor hygiene.

Brill and Zinsser described that stress or waning immunity could reactivate R. Western blot analyses and cross-adsorption studies strongly suggested R. The assay format, buffers, and other reagents were used in accordance with methods previously described [7].

Blood test results were as follows: Sign In or Create an Account. The patient became afebrile on March 15, and he was discharged from the hospital and remained well.

Orphanet: Brill Zinsser disease

Close mobile search navigation Article navigation. Health care resources for this disease Expert centres 22 Diagnostic tests 3 Patient organisations 0 Orphan drug s 0. At the time of this patient’s clinical presentation insylvatic typhus was not initially suspected as the cause of illness, and treatment with a tetracycline group antibiotic was not incorporated as part of the therapeutic regimen.

Vibrio cholerae Cholera Vibrio vulnificus Vibrio parahaemolyticus Vibrio alginolyticus Plesiomonas shigelloides. Rickettsia felis Flea-borne spotted fever. You must accept the terms and conditions.

This finding suggests that R. In more contemporary case reports Table 3patients with Brjll disease have displayed a variety of signs and symptoms, and rash has been absent in at least 1 other published case report [ 9—12 ].

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Only comments seeking to improve the quality and accuracy of information on the Orphanet website are accepted. Adipose tissue serves as a sinsser for recrudescent Rickettsia prowazekii infection in a mouse model. Sincereports of only 8 cases of Brill-Zinsser disease have been published 9 Although results of PCR of the patient’s acute serum sample were negative, this finding is not wholly unexpected.


Brill-Zinsser Disease in Moroccan Man, France,

In addition, archived serum that had been collected from the patient in after his initial R. Latest Most Read Most Cited Sequelae of congenital cytomegalovirus cCMV following maternal primary infection are limited to those acquired in the first trimester of pregnancy.

Other antibiotics are generally considered less effective for treatment of rickettsial infection and have been associated with an increased risk of fatal outcome [14].

Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pseudomonas infection Moraxella catarrhalis Acinetobacter baumannii. It furthers the University’s objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Treatment of epidemic typhus: Email alerts New issue alert. Your comment will be reviewed and published at the journal’s discretion. The documents contained in this web site are presented for information purposes only. I agree to the terms and conditions.

Related articles in Web of Science Google Scholar. Brill-Zinsser disease should be considered as a possible diagnosis for acute fever in any patient who has lived in an area where epidemic typhus is endemic.